Category Archives: Montana History

March 1945 in Montana

March 1 – All taverns, nightclubs, and places of entertainment were ordered to close at midnight to save energy.

March 5 – Temperatures in Lewistown fell to minus 34 degrees, the coldest place in the nation.

March 10 – The 163rd Infantry Regiment (formed from the Montana National Guard) landed on the Zamboanga peninsula of Mindanao, Philippines.

March 18 – Memorial services were held at Browning for five Blackfeet tribal members killed in the war.

March 22 – The Pacific Car and Foundry Co. in Billings was honored with an “E” award celebration for war production.

March 26 – A “war-weary” veteran pilot from the Great Falls Army Air Base was arrested after repeatedly buzzing Great Falls at 2 a.m.

February 1945 in Montana

April 1945 in Montana (coming soon)

Montana History Calendar 1942

Montana History Calendar 1941

Montana History Calendar 1930s

Read more about March 1945 in Montana and the history of the state during World War II.

Montana's Home Front During World War II
Montana’s Home Front During World War II

 

What others think of Montana’s Home Front During World War II

 “a wealth of new information
and many never-before-seen photographs of
Montana during the 1940s. The result is a very
comprehensive, fascinating account of how the
state’s population coped with the tragedy of a worldwide military conflict.” – Judith Shafter – State of the Arts

“you’ve got to see it for yourself but any history or travel enthusiast will be very pleased with the wealth of information in this book.” – Greg Wortman, Billings Examiner

“excellent for the wealth of Montana history contained within. A fascinating snapshot of civilian life during the war” – ebay member burnafterreading

 

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Prisoners of War in Montana

Today’s Missoulian carried an article by Perry Backus of the Ravalli Republic on two Bitterroot Valley residents who are compiling information on the German prisoners of war (POWs) who worked on local farms in Montana during the summers of 1944 and 1945.

Montana's Home Front During World War II
Montana’s Home Front During WW II

Finding enough labor to work the sugar beet fields was a recurring nightmare for farmers, sugar companies, and government officials during World War II. At first community volunteers from young to old, augmented by high school and college students, worked to bring in the critical harvest of sugar beets. Later, thousands of Mexican workers were brought to Montana each summer, as well as a few hundred Jamaicans, but the state faced a continual shortage of farm labor throughout the war years. Farmers were relieved during the spring of 1944 when the Federal government announced that as many as 7,000 German prisoners of war would be sent to Montana (actual numbers were probably lower).

Some of the prisoners of war in Montana wound up at the farm owned by Homer and Betty Bailey in the Bitterroot, and their daughter Mary Lyn has been compiling information about the little-known prisoner of war camps. You can read the Ravalli Republic article here. Mary has received numerous responses to the article and is interested in hearing from anyone who has memories or knowledge of the German prisoner of war camps.

Typically, temporary camps for the prisoners were built at sugar beet refineries and on local farms. Many of the camps were built for 250 prisoners, with two American officers and 30 enlisted men to guard them. Usually these were tent camps, surrounded by barbed wire fences with guard towers and searchlights. The farmers and sugar beet companies were responsible for constructing the camps. Many of the Germans had served with the Afrika Corps in North Africa before being captured. They received a voucher for 80 cents per day that could be used to purchase personal items. They could work no more than eight hours per day, excluding breaks, meals, and transportation, and were accompanied everywhere by armed guards. Local residents were not supposed to speak to the prisoners. Wheat farmers also used prisoners, and when the 1945 beet harvest was complete, 250 Germans were sent to the Bitterroot to pick apples. A small number of Italian prisoners worked near Billings, and both Italian and Japanese detainees at Fort Missoula also helped with the sugar and apple harvest. Marvin Costello of Stevensville, 14 years old at the time, remembered “The prisoners all seemed so young, not much older than me…They acted like they were all pleased to be safe as POWs after what they had probably been exposed to in the war.”

Mary Lyn would like to organize a gathering to bring together those who remember the Germans prisoners. She can be contacted at 406-360-6279 or marylynmontana@gmail.com. You can also leave a comment here.

Montana's Home Front During World War II
Montana’s Home Front During WW II
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Montana History Calendar 1930s

• January 29, 1933 – Amelia Earhart piloted a Ford Trimotor around the Helena Valley.

• July 15, 1933 – Going-to-the-Sun highway was dedicated.

• March 2, 1933 – Montana Senator Thomas Walsh died on his way to Washington D.C. to take an appointment as the U.S Attorney General.

• October 1933 – Construction began on Fort Peck Dam.

• 1934 – A four-and-a-half month long peaceful strike by the International Mine, Mill and Smelter workers revived union activity in the state.

• 1935 – The Montana Highway Patrol was formed.

• May 6, 1935 – President Roosevelt created the Works Progress Administration.

• October 1935 – A series of earthquakes killed four people and caused $4 million in damage to buildings, including Helena High School.

• December 15, 1935 – Bill Holt was named to replace Gov. Frank Cooney, who died in office.

• November 23, 1936 – Fort Peck Dam was the featured cover story of the first issue of LIFE magazine.

• Jan. 4, 1937 – Roy Ayers was sworn in as governor.

• June 12, 1937 – Two–and–one–half inches of rain and hail in one hour ruptured an irrigation canal and caused a major flood in downtown Billings. The Burlington railroad tracks washed out, and the Midland Empire fairgrounds suffered hail damage. The Billings Gazette called it “the greatest catastrophe in the city’s 54 year history.”

1938-1940

• January 10, 1938 – A Northwest Airlines flight crashed near Bozeman, killing 10.

• April 22, 1938 – The U.S. Government transferred Lewis and Clark Caverns to the state of Montana. The area would become the first state park in 1941.

• April 1938 – Kerr Dam near Polson became operational.

• June 19, 1938 – The Milwaukee Road “Olympian” derailed near Miles City, with 47 dead and 75 injured.

• Sept.22, 1938 – A major landslide at the Fort Peck Dam construction site killed 8 men.

• July 12, 1940 – Missoula smokejumpers Earl Cooley and Rufus Robinson made the first parachute jump on a fire.

• Sept. 11, 1940 – Fire destroyed the Northern Hotel and damaged 13 other Billings businesses.

• Sept. 16, 1940 – The National Guard was inducted into the Regular Army.

• Sept. 25, 1940 – Congress passed the first peacetime draft.

Learn more about Montana History Calender 1930s and the state’s history during the war years.

Montana's Home Front During World War II
Montana’s Home Front During World War II

Montana History Calendar 1941

Montana History Calendar 1942

Montana History Calendar 1943

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